Spliced methods

Like most of the world since March, we have been in lockdown, and so haven’t rung face to face in quite a while. But we decided that today was the day. It’s beautiful here in SoCal – the sun is shining, there’s no smoke in the air, and we could meet outside in Jane’s garden and ring with masks and appropriate distance.

Jane decided that this was not the time to rest on our laurels, and so introduced us to spliced methods, which we have never done. Of course, to do spliced methods, you need to be comfortable with multiple methods that you can splice between! We have rung Bob major multiple times (including some touches), and had started practicing Little Bob major before we stopped meeting. So today, we decided to first work on Little Bob until we were comfortable with it, and then splice that with Bob major.

Now, remember that we have never rung any spliced methods before. We had heard of them, and wondered. And had even asked Jane about them. She would give us a straightforward explanation, but explanations only go so far. You need to actually try to ring a splice to really understand them.

So, after a short explanation, we started ringing. The first attempt was short – we started with Bob major, spliced to Little Bob major at the first lead end, and then spliced back to Bob major at the next lead end. I believe that’s 40 changes? But we got it!

I can’t tell you what else Jane called, and we weren’t successful every time. If you remember what it was like when you first started ringing splices, we would sometimes forget which method we were ringing! But we had fun.

And then Jane decided that we needed to ring a touch splice. We weren’t successful at any attempt of that. But that just means we have good stuff to learn. And we will continue ringing splices and touches, both in ringingroom.com and face to face.

Spliced methods

What is Little Little Little Little Penultimus Little Place?

I haven’t written anything for a while. But we did something noteworthy tonight, so I need to record it.

We had 4 people tonight, who are working on a quarter peal of bob major. Jane, Randy, Andrew, and Maggie. So we started the evening with a long length touch of that method. We rang a 560 change method tonight, and did it on the first attempt, which I call a win! Not a quarter peal, yet. But we are creeping up on that target.

While looking for a new method to ring, Jane suggested we try either Little Bob, or St. Clements College Bob. Both look fairly straightforward, but while looking through iAgrams we stumbled upon a method named Little Little Little Little Penultimus Place. Looking through the blue line for this method, it looked very strange – the treble never gets to 8th place, but rather makes places at 7, causing the bell in the 8th place to stay there for four blows.

“Shall we try this?”

“Sure, why not?”

As we were ringing, we heard familiar melodies, because this seems to be a slightly truncated version of Bob Major. So after three or four attempts, we actually were able to ring this new method!

The most curious fact about this method seems to be that, you change positions when the treble is making 7ths, but other than that you just continually plain hunt. There is no dodging! So, for example, Randy was ringing 3-4, where he started in the 3-4 position. The 3 bell is the bell that makes 8ths in the first lead, which puts him into the 2-3 position. From there, he just rings that 2-3 position, with no dodges or anything else special, until the 4 bell makes long 8ths, at which point he is back in the 3-4 position until it comes back to rounds.

The same is true for 5-6 and 7-8. The same is NOT true for the trebles. But of course, the trebles change position at every lead end in Bob Major, and in LLLLPLP (to use initials!) the same is true, though the change comes when the treble is making 7ths.

It was a fun night of ringing, and getting to learn a little bit of a new method.

What is Little Little Little Little Penultimus Little Place?

A touch of Bob Major

After the spring ring last month, we were able to recruit two new ringers. Each has only come once, but are planning on joining us more often. Say hello to Lucinda and Maleata. They may even bring in other friends of theirs. Stay tuned!

Neither was able to join us tonight for our rehearsal. So we had a band of fairly experienced ringers: Jane, Andrew, Genine, and Randy. As a result, we decided that we should start working on a quarter peal of Bob Major, never having done that.

Jane asked what we wanted to ring, and Randy said, “For about 20 minutes”, thinking that would be about one half of a quarter peal. After some consideration of what she was going to call, Jane told us to start. And 20+ minutes later we had rung a touch of 672 changes! It was very exciting, as we rung with very few mistakes, and didn’t need to stop and start over. We may be ready for a quarter peal! But probably not after a full day of work.

Jane is also teaching Andrew and Randy how to call touches. And so we spent the rest of our time tonight practicing Bob minor, with bobs being called by Andrew, and then by Randy. Andrew was successful in calling a simple bob, bob, plain, bob, bob, plain, bob, bob, plain. Sadly, Randy was not. We’ll get there.

We finished the evening with a quick plain course of Bob Major with our large bells. We tend to not ring them much, as it is a lot of effort when ringing for more than 10 minutes.

A touch of Bob Major

Spring Ring change ringing class notes, May 18 2019

What is change ringing?

We usually use an even number of bells in a major scale with the key note of the scale as the lowest note. Convention says it would be 6, 8, 10 or 12 bells. We ring each bell once in a sequence, so that each sequence – or change – has each bell striking once. The simplest change (sequence) is each bell ringing from the highest to the lowest note. Instead of notes, we list bells as numbers (because it doesn’t matter which key they are in) – starting with 1 for the highest and descending down from there. So the simplest change on 8 bells would be:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

This simplest change is known as “rounds.”

If we rang “rounds” the whole time, life would get pretty boring! So we need a way – or a set of rules – to mix up the order of the bells to make it more interesting. And to find out more about those rules, we need to go back to England in the 1600s.

A word on history . . .

The starting point for those rules is that all of change ringing is based on bells hung in a church tower – there are a handful of secular towers, such as Manchester Town Hall UK, or the Mitchell Tower, University of Chicago, but 99% of bell towers are in churches. In the 1600s, the way that church bells were hung in the tower – the frame, the wheel, the fittings, etc. – developed significantly. Prior to that, bells had been tolled – pull the rope, the bell swings and strikes in its own rhythm, without the ringer having any precise control. These new fittings allowed bells to be rung full circle – and that allowed the bells to be struck more precisely, so that they could ring one after another, in rounds, all spaced evenly. To show you what I mean, here is a great YouTube video of the bells at Buckfast Abbey, which show bells ringing as they are hung in the UK.

This starts with the ringers in the ringing chamber, ringing rounds – and then moving up into the belfry, to show the bells actually turning. You’ll notice that they are fixed to a pivot, with a wheel attached to the pivot, and a rope around the wheel. You pull the rope, it turns the wheel, it swings the bell – until it has enough momentum to swing upwards and hover on the balance point. The way we ring church bells is that we pull the rope enough to nudge the bell off the balance point, and it swings all the way round to the balance point on the other side. We nudge it again and it swings back. When you look at the folks in the ringing chamber, the rope shoots up through the ceiling because it wraps itself around the wheel – and then it comes back down as the wheel turns round again and it unwinds. However, we can’t ring music, as we do with handbell choirs, because we can’t make the bell wait a long length of time, or repeat rapidly. Each bell weighs anything from a few hundred to a few thousand pounds, and that bell has a life of its own! So the best we can do is to nudge the bell to move one place sooner in the change (sequence), or hold it back to strike one place later, or ring steadily stay in the same place. So this is how “rules” came about – bell fittings improved so that we have more control, BUT – we can only move one place sooner in the change, one place later in the change, or stay in the same place.

OK – so we have the bell fitting improvements that allowed change ringing to develop – let’s look at the people who actually developed change ringing.

The first textbook on change ringing was called “Tintinnalogia” and published in 1668, written for a London-based ringing society called the College Youths, and it had some very simple ways to create groups of changes – known as methods. There was a real excitement at that time with many new sets of bells being installed in towers, and it wasn’t long before the next book – called “Campanologia” – was published in 1677, authored by Fabian Stedman, who created a lot more methods, many of them a lot more complicated! There is famous method, known as Stedman, which Fabian Stedman composed, and which is still one of the most popular methods rung to this day.

The rules of change ringing

Beyond the basic rules of each bell only moving one place forward and back, or staying in the same place in the change, the additional rules are that each method has to start and finish in rounds (the simplest change, highest to lowest bell), no change was allowed to be repeated, and no stopping part way through. These are the rules we still follow today.
So how do we put methods (groups of changes) together?

Let’s start with 6 bells.

1 2 3 4 5 6

The easiest way to have everyone move is to swap with their neighbor:

2 1 4 3 6 5

If everyone swapped with their neighbor again, we would be back to 1 2 3 4 5 6. What we can we do to avoid that?

The next easiest thing is to have the bell in the first place and the last place in the change stay in the same place, and the pairs of bells in the middle swap with their neighbor. So we get:

1 2 3 4 5 6
2 1 4 3 6 5
2 4 1 6 3 5

Now let’s repeat that sequence – swap with your neighbor, then swap the inside pairs – and see what happens:

1 2 3 4 5 6
2 1 4 3 6 5 – everyone cross
2 4 1 6 3 5 – inside pairs cross
4 2 6 1 5 3 – everyone cross
4 6 2 5 1 3 – inside pairs cross
6 4 5 2 3 1 – everyone cross
6 5 4 3 2 1 – inside pairs cross

(As handbell change ringers, we usually highlight a pair of bells, since we ring two at a time. In this case, I highlighted bells 1 and 2 in red.)

Why don’t you continue the pattern and see what happens? SPOILER ALERT – answer below, so stop reading now if you want to do the exercise!

OK – so it looks like this:

1 2 3 4 5 6
2 1 4 3 6 5 – everyone cross
2 4 1 6 3 5 – inside pairs cross
4 2 6 1 5 3 – everyone cross
4 6 2 5 1 3 – inside pairs cross
6 4 5 2 3 1 – everyone cross
6 5 4 3 2 1 – inside pairs cross
5 6 3 4 1 2
5 3 6 1 4 2
3 5 1 6 2 4
3 1 5 2 6 4
1 3 2 5 4 6
1 2 3 4 5 6

You can see that in 12 changes, we have started and finished in rounds, each bell has only moved one place forward, one place backward, or stayed in the same place, and we have not repeated anything.

If you were at the class, this is the pattern that we practiced with one person ringing one bell.

12 changes is a big step forward, but this also would get very boring if that is all we rang. How do we extend from here? Here are a few examples:

1 3 2 5 4 6

This is the next to last change before getting back into rounds. Instead of first and last
bell staying in place and the inside bells swapping – how about we hold the first and second bell, and the bells in 3rds/4ths place and 5ths /6ths swap with each other?

1 3 2 5 4 6
1 3 5 2 6 4

and then after that we go back to everyone cross/inside pairs cross, until 1 gets back to
the first place again, then we do another “hold first and second place bells” etc etc . Trust me that this will eventually come back to rounds! Along the way, it will produce 60 changes instead of 12.

Or how about if we start off with 3 and 4 staying in the same place? Then everyone crossing?

1 2 3 4 5 6
2 1 3 4 6 5 – stay in 3rds/4ths place
1 2 4 3 5 6 – everyone cross
2 1 4 3 6 5 – stay in 3rds/4ths place
2 4 1 6 3 5 – inside pairs cross
4 2 6 1 5 3 – everyone cross
4 2 1 6 3 5 – stay in 1st /2nds place

This one is a lot more complicated, but is an example to show how we can build up complexity. There are thousands of variations we can make like this, and each defined set of variations is called a method. We also give these methods names, a bit like pieces of music have names. The one above with 12 changes is called “Plain Hunt” and the one with 60 changes is called “Plain Bob.” This last one is called “Kent Treble Bob” and has 120 changes.

How many changes are there?

To find the total number of changes on a given number of bells the calculation is:

On 6   1x2x3x4x5x6 = 720 (takes about 20 minutes of nonstop ringing)

On 7   1x2x3x4x5x6x7 = 5,040 (takes about 3 hours of nonstop ringing)

On 8   1x2x3x4x5x6x7x8 = 40,320 (only been done a couple of times, but has taken about 21 hours on very small, very fast-turning bells).

On 12   1x2x3x4x5x6x7x8x9x10x11x12 = 479,001,600 (would take about 39 years – and no, never been done)

There is an enormous amount of variety and challenge in devising and ringing methods, and we never get bored.

What does Plain Bob sound like?

We rang Plain Bob on eight bells at Spring Ring, and there is also a video on our website of us ringing Plain Bob on eight and on ten bells. Go to the video section and take a listen! Here is the link on YouTube for eight bells.

Here are a few things you will notice:

  • We each ring two bells, and we do not physically move places
  • We ring both an up and a down stroke – this both mimics church bells, but also allows us to ring the changes a lot faster than if we just rung one stroke downwards
  • There is no variation in dynamics – church bells cannot ring loudly or softly, so neither do we
  • There is a slight pause of one bell length after every two changes – this helps us get our bearings and count up to eight and back

Ringing call changes – an interim step

We will talk later about how we ring Plain Hunt with two bells, but before that, let’s do a second exercise – this time introducing you to ringing two bells at once.

Rather than jumping straight into ringing a different change on every stroke, call changes allows us to ring a change that is different from rounds and repeat that change. Remember, the rule about repeating a change only applies to ringing a method, so call changes is more like a training exercise.

On tower bells, the conductor calls out the numbers of two bells that should swap with each other and stay swapped until he/she calls them back again. So that might go

13245678 . . . lots of times
13254678 . . . lots of times
13254768 . . . lots of times . . .

There are certain changes which are very musical, and these changes have names. A few of them are:

13572468 (odd bells first, then even bells) – this is called Queens 13579E24680T
( 0 E T stand for 10, 11, 12)

12753468 – Whittingtons (two highest, then odds from the bottom and evens from top) 12E97534680T

15263748 – Tittums 172839405E6T

12563478 – Pairs 1278349056ET

These will extend to 10 or 12 bells, and drop to 6 as well.

On handbells, because we are not hauling hundreds of pounds of bellmetal around, we can break the “only move one place at a time” rule! So what we do is just announce “Queens next time” and we ring Queens on the next up stroke. We only had time to do Queens on the Spring Ring, but why not try Whittingtons, Pairs or Tittums? Try to get an even rhythm going throughout, with a SLIGHT PAUSE just before the upstroke of the lightest bell. You need this pause to get your bearings – otherwise you will never be able to count the places in your head. You can ring with as few or as many bells as you like.

1234567812345678(pause one bell stroke long)1234567812345678(pause)

A third way to ring changes – cross and stretch

Another way to ring that we didn’t have chance to try at Spring Ring is known as cross and stretch, which a number of bell choirs in the US have tried. Remember how with Plain Hunt, everyone crosses with their neighbor, then the first and last bells stay in the same place and the inside pairs cross?

  • Start with bells on the table, just as you do with bell choir
  • Each person rings two bells once in a descending scale (rounds) (On 8 bells in the key of C, ringer 1 rings C/B, ringer 2 rings A/G, ringer 3 rings E/F, ringer 4 rings D/C)
  • Cross your hands as you place the bells back on the table
  • Now pick them up (hands uncrossed, but bells are crossed over) and ring them
  • This time, when placing the bells on the table, ringer 1 and 4 keep the outside bell in the same place, and everyone crosses bells with their neighbor
  • This time, cross with yourself
  • This time, cross with your neighbor
  • Repeat until you get back to the beginning

I expected to find plenty of videos of cross and stretch and I didn’t! The best one was actually on chimes, where you can clearly see the cross and stretch pattern, and they do a very nice job.

HOWEVER! Every single US video of cross and stretch starts with “reverse rounds’ and not rounds. As a change ringer, those videos go against the grain completely. You have to start and finish in rounds! Do try cross and stretch, it is a great exercise in precision and gets you into the sound of changes without having to learn to hold two bells and a road map in your head. Why not try this using the slight pause before each cross with yourself change, rather than with a conductor – it will impress! But please, please please, for my sake – start in rounds.

Ringing with two bells each ringer: how do we get our heads around all those numbers?

We don’t!

Instead, we remember a road map. Remember when we walked through plain hunt at the Spring Ring? And the first two bells wore a colored hat? And we saw how they both worked their way out together towards the end of the change, with one bell apart? We remember the position of each bell in relation to each other, and count. If you take plain hunt from the notes above, and join up all the 1 bell and another line to join all the 2 bell, you will see how they track. Or remember the colored hats. We think:

1st place and 2nd place (bells swapped over)
1st and 3rd
2nd and 4th
3rd and 5th
4th and 6th
5th and 6th etc.

These relate to the places that the bell strikes in, not the number of the bell. If you go back to our video of Plain Bob Major, watch Randy ringing bells 1 and 2, and listen how they ring for the first 16 changes just one bell apart. Yes, they go off in different directions after that, but that is a more advanced lesson!

If you would like to try change ringing, do contact us and we would welcome you along to a practice night (we ring on Monday evenings in Encinitas) and we will introduce you to the basics of Plain Hunt. Just about everyone who visits can ring Plain Hunt with a bit of help, by the end of our practice. Thanks for visiting us at Spring Ring, and we hope you enjoyed finding out more about change ringing.

Spring Ring change ringing class notes, May 18 2019

Different bobs

We had a rehearsal tonight with just three of us (Jane, Maggie, Randy). And with all our recent successes ringing quarter peals, we decided to do something different.

For the first 15 minutes or so, we rang plain bob minor, but with Maggie on 3-4, which she hasn’t done much before. She did well enough that we needed to continue on to something different. We had tried ringing reverse bob a few weeks back, and so decided to focus on that for a while.

Plain bob has a dodge whenever the treble leads. The dodge causes bells in positions 1 and 2 to stay in their positions, and the other positions to swap with their neighbor.

Reverse bob has a dodge whenever the treble is at the back, and causes bells in positions 5 and 6 to stay in their positions, and the other positions to swap with their neighbor. When you have rung plain bob for years, ringing reverse bob is disconcerting because the lead bell may not ring on both the handstroke and backstroke, which is something you get very used to when ringing plain bob!

So, after struggling with reverse bob for a while, we finally rung a plain course of reverse bob successfully! Maggie on the trebles, Randy on 3-4, and Jane on the tenors. After ringing it successfully a few times, we decided to up the ante.

Double bob has a dodge when the treble is on the front, and when it is on the back! On the front is easy – it is what we do with plain bob every time we ring it. But combining that with the dodge on the back promised to cause trouble. So we started. And rang it correctly on the first attempt! We were surprised, but perhaps unfairly so. We have been ringing together for quite a few years now, and are really starting to meld. And tonight proved that with that first attempt success.

We rang it a couple more times, just to prove that the success was not a fluke, and were able to ring the method successfully again and again.

So, we upped the ante again, and decided to attempt a touch of double bob. Sadly, we could not ring that successfully, even after multiple attempts. But we were able to get to the first bob successfully, and so we were quite pleased with ourselves.

Different bobs

One more quarter peal

Do I sound like a broken record? This may be the last time I post about a quarter peal with 6 bells, as we have now almost all managed ringing one. The last time I post will be when Karen is part of the band, or a new (as yet unknown) member rings a quarter with us.

But we rang a new quarter peal today! This was exciting for a couple of reasons, besides just the thrill of ringing a quarter peal.

First, this was the first time Maggie has rung a quarter peal, ever. The first time is always cause for celebration.

Second, Maggie has been on vacation for a few weeks. She returned for a week, but has been gone essentially since 6 August. But having been gone for so long, she just stepped in and rang a quarter peal tonight. So it seems we can ring a quarter peal pretty much at will now. Which also feels like an accomplishment.

The quarter peal is listed on BellBoard.

Sadly, I neglected to photograph the band.

One more quarter peal

Another quarter

For the past few weeks during our normal rehearsals, we have been considering ringing another quarter peal. This would be a band of 3 people on 6 bells: Andrew on the trebles, Randy on 3, 4, and Jane on the tenors, conducting. But rarely (if ever) have we had those three together with no one else, so have not attempted the quarter during our regular rehearsals. (After all, when a ringer comes to rehearsal, they are really not interested in watching someone else ring a quarter peal. They want to ring!)

So, we scheduled a Saturday in October to make the attempt. Originally scheduled for October 20, we discovered that we could actually all meet on October 6! This was due to Andrew not being able to travel as originally planned, due to the recent hurricane in the Carolinas. So we met at Jane’s house this morning. We blocked out 2 hours to make the attempt.

The first attempt was about 10 minutes. There were a couple of bobbles which somehow resulted in bells 2 and 4 getting switched! Rather than try to make it right, Jane stopped us. After all, is it really official if we made such a mistake during the attempt? I don’t think so.

After a small break, we had another go, and this time we were successful! 41 minutes of ringing, and we all have another quarter peal under our belts.

For Andrew, this is his second quarter in hand, and the first in North America. Also the first on trebles.

For Randy, this is his fourth quarter in hand, and otherwise not special.

For Jane, this is just one of many quarter peals she has rung in hand.

The band, 2018 10 06
The band, after successfully ringing a quarter peal. Left to right, Andrew, Randy, Jane. Photo by Andrew Scher.

My hope is to ring a quarter on 8 soon. Stay tuned! (Do people still say that?)


Another quarter

Working towards a new quarter peal

The group has decided to work on a new quarter peal. Well, we are always doing something that will help towards that goal, but for the past few weeks we have made a point of each person ringing the same bells all the time, rather than learn new positions.

This time, we are working on a quarter peal of Bob Major. For those who don’t know, that means that we are a quartet ringing eight bells. Maggie has the trebles, Randy has 3-4, Andrew has 5-6, and Jane has the tenors. Occasionally, Randy and Andrew switch, but with the goal now to work hard towards the quarter, that will no longer be happening!

Karen and Genine have mostly been absent during this training, giving us a chance to focus. Though it will be good to have them back on a regular basis.

In order to ring a quarter peal, we need to understand bobs and singles for the method, and so we started with that. So for the past few weeks, we have been ringing longer methods, mostly 336 changes (3 bobs at home).

Last night, we were able to almost ring a full 672 method, though we didn’t start at the beginning (one advantage of ringing handbells!) Instead of starting at the beginning, we started halfway through the last lead of the first plain course (87654312), and immediately called a bob at the lead end. We were struggling through the last course, which is simply a plain course, but with 3-4 reversed. When we got to rounds, there was a bit of rejoicing! Though not something we can post on bellboard (since we didn’t actually ring the full method), it is an achievement we are proud of in our goal of ringing a quarter peal of Bob Major.

Working towards a new quarter peal

Something different

On 21 May, we tried something different. One of our members (Maggie) found a YouTube video of a group ringing changes by switching bells with the person next to them, rather than remembering the blue lines. She sent a link to the video to our fearless leader (Jane) who suggested that we try this method!

The method is called Stedman Cinques, and the place notation for the method can be given easily as 3 1 E 3 1 3 1 3 E 1 3 1 (where E stands for bell eleven). The method is rung with 11 bells (that’s what Cinques means), though you actually ring 12 bells. It’s just that the tenor (lowest bell) always rings in the same place.

That place notation means that, at the first change (given by 3), the bell in the third position stays in third, bells in the 1 and 2 position switch places, 4 switches with 5, 6 switches with 7, 8 switches with 9, and 10 switches with 11.

The second change (given by 1) means that the bell in the first position stays in first, and everyone else switches with their neighbor.

And the third change (given by E) means that everyone switches, except for 11 (and 12, which never moves).

The last thing to note is that to switch bells with your neighbor, you actually place the bell in her lap, and she places the replacement bell in your lap. Fortunately we are all good friends!

After a few minutes of explanation, we wrote that place notation on a piece of paper we could all see, and gave it a shot. Randy on 1,2. Karen on 3,4. Jane on 5,6. Maggie on 7,8. Andrew on 9,10. And Genine on 11,12. Of course, the first few attempts were comical. But by the end of the evening we had actually rung a plain course of Stedman Cinques! Which felt like quite an accomplishment.

And kudos to Karen, who did an amazing job of keeping us all in the right place, to the point of correcting Jane more than once!

Sadly, we don’t have any recording of the event. This was our first attempt! But you can see a much better group than us ringing this if you click the link above.

And maybe we’ll continue working on this, to the point of doing it from memory instead of reading the changes while we ring.

Wish us luck!

Something different

Rehearsal – Feb 19, 2018

We had a visitor this week, someone who is experienced in both tower bells and handbells. Lian from Washington, DC joined us for an evening of ringing. With Lian, we had 5 ringers, and rang a bit of Bob Royal, which we don’t get to do very often.

I didn’t get a full bio from her, but from what I remember, Lian started ringing in London a few years back. Her first few experiences were watching and driving ringers on a tower tour before she was actually given a rope to pull. In Washington, DC, she rings at the National Cathedral, and is also in a handbell group. In handbells, she is quite a bit more experienced than we are, having rung methods that we have only heard of (or which Jane has only rung in a tower).

On Monday, we rang a plain course of Bob Royal with the smaller bells, finally succeeding after three attempts. We then reduced to ringing Bob Major, and worked on speed, finishing a couple of plain courses with different people. We then finished the evening ringing Plain Hunt with the bigger bells, “under the crystal” where the acoustics are especially fine. We again worked on speed, and thoroughly enjoyed ourselves. We hope to see Lian again.

In fact, if you are ever visiting the San Diego area, we would love to ring with you. Just email us (at this blog). We normally rehearse on Monday evenings, but with as little a day or two notice, we can normally gather enough people to ring at any time.

Rehearsal – Feb 19, 2018